Nicole Avento is a student of Macaulay Honors College at Hunter College, CUNY. Nicole studies environmental studies with a concentration in environmental science, as well as women and gender studies. She has plans to continue her education to receive a doctorate degree in marine ecology. Nicole recently participated in a study abroad to the Hawaiian islands where she conducted oceanographic research in regards to chlorophyll-a in the surface water. The research focused on the open ocean around the islands, traditional Hawaiian fish ponds, both abandoned and restored, as well as protected streams. She also took samples throughout the tri to compare fast and still water. Nicole hopes to participate in a study abroad in Jamaica this winter at the Discovery Bay Marine Laboratory where studying marine ecology will be the center focus.
The lack of access to family planning throughout the world contributes to the emission of a minimum of one gigatonne of carbon per year. Carbon emissions contribute to the warming of the atmosphere among other aspects on earth. I will be researching whether a lack of family planning affects other earth systems and the reach this pollution has to the surrounding areas. Family planning is not simply having access to birth control, abortions or sterilization. It is having access to the resources necessary to have the choice and freedom to plan, space, or prevent a pregnancy, as the woman desires. Access to family planning leads to a lower mortality rate for both, the mother and child. It also allows for more children within a family to attend school, because the family would be more likely to afford to send them. This issue is an international one, if the resources are not provided, a vicious cycle of increased birthrate and pollution are probable to occur.
Key Words: Family Planning; International; Pollution; Trans-boundary; Environmental strain; Reproductive justice; Environmental justice